SQL> select 1+1 from dual ;
SQL> select sysdate from dual;
DUAL was originally a table and the database engine would perform disk IO on the table when selecting from DUAL. This disk IO was usually logical IO (not involving physical disk access) as the disk blocks were usually already cached in memory. This resulted in a large amount of logical IO against the DUAL table.Later versions of the Oracle database have been optimized and the database no longer performs physical or logical IO on the DUAL table even though the DUAL table still actually exists.